Welcome to Modern Greek Verbs

The purpose of this site is to provide the complete conjugations of a usable number (maybe 1,000) of modern Greek verbs. Each verb has been fully conjugated in all tenses and has been categorized at the top of each page according to Type and Model. The Types are determined by their personal endings. Type I verbs are accented on the verb stem. Type II verbs are accented on the personal ending. Most Type II verbs can be conjugated in either an A or B form. [The IIA verbs are easy to spot: they have an alternate form in the present, like αγαπάω.] The trick is finding those verbs which are only conjugated as Type IIB. Clicking on the Type link at the top of each page will iterate through the list of the three model verbs, λύνω, αγαπάω and θεωρώ.

The Models are characterized by the verb stem. The Models are listed at the top of each verb page from left to right in big-endian sequence. The least-significant Model is on the list to the furthest right. Clicking on the right-most list will iterate through the verbs most similar to the one currently displayed.

A search function is also provided at the top of each page. You can enter the Greek verb using the Greek keyboard, but you'll have to put the accent in the right place. (This may change in the future.) You can also enter the transliterated version of the verb. The transliteration is mostly phonetic, but is not a standardized encoding, like Greeklish, or others. You'll have to experiment. I have tried to group all the verbs derived from a single root using the english transliteration. For example, you can find all the verbs based on βαίνω by searching for "baino". Finally, you can search using the English definition. This turns the index into an English-Greek dictionary too.

The Search function does a sequential search of the HTML index, so you can see the list of all conjugated verbs by searching for "href", the hyperlink reference. Typing in the initial Capital letter will select only the verbs beginning with that letter. You can do this with

Each record has been annotated with attributes. You can search for anything you see in the index, like "vt.dep." (=transitive deponents) or "def." (=defectives). Some of the attributes have been hidden. Searching for "mgv" will display the 201 verbs from the Barron's book, "rhm" will display the 162 model verbs in the Iordanidou book, and "twx" the 600 verbs from the [Capri] book. As mentioned, searching for "href" will display all the verbs which have been hyperlinked.

The dictionary has been designed primarily as a learning tool, to enhance the dictionaries currently available on paper. You can browse the dictionary alphabetically, or follow one of the Model lists to see all the verbs which are conjugated the same. I've tried to comma-separate the lists so they can be copied and pasted into other programs, like spreadsheets or word-processors, and sorted or counted. The dictionary can be used with a normal browser, the bigger, the better. The wider the screen, the more you will see. No special tools are required. You can resize or even change the font. The tables reformat themselves when you resize the window.


Kind regards

Verb Dictionaries

Verb dictionaries attempt to define the structure (i.e. conjugation) of each verb. They are less descriptive semantically; they merely supply morphlogical information. There are two kinds, the fully-conjugated kind like the [Christides], and the synoptic, which presents instructions for the conjugation of each verb in the form tables, the individual conjugation being driven by an index. [Iordanidou] is an example of the latter. It is a printed dictionary, and therefore limited in space. The instructions are pretty clear, but have limitations too, the most difficult being for the irregulars. For example, consider συνιστώ, taken from the index in [Iordanidou], pg. 96:

συνιστώ, συνέστησα* 158
συνίσταμαι, συστάθηκα* 133

συνιστώ, συνέστησα* 158
συνιστώμαι* 61 (μόνο στον ενεστ.)

συνιστώ, συνίσταμαι - συνιστώ, συνιστώμαι: το πρώτο ρ. σημαίνει → συγκροτώ, σχματίζω ή αποτελώ. Στην παθητική φωνή (συνίσταμαι) σημαίνει → αποτελούμαι ή έχω ορισμένες ιδιότητες, ορισμένο περιεχόμενο. (Με ειδικές έννοιες χρησιμοποιούνται οι ουσιαστικοποιημένες μτχ. η συνιστώσα και η συνισταμένη). Το δεύτερο ρ. (με παθ. φχνή συνιστώμαι) σημαίνει → συμβουλεύω, υποδεικνύω σε κάποιον κάτι ή υποδεικνύω κάποιν ως κατάλληλο και άξιο.

This definition seems to imply that similar active forms exist for both verbs, and conflicts with traditional dictionary entries, which are organized differently, and are somewhat clearer. For example, [Pandelodimos], pg.1287:

συνίσταμαι ρ. αμετβ. être composé(-ée), se composer de, consister. 1. Το μείγμα συνίσταται από τρία στοιχεία. Le mélange est composé de trois éléments. ◾ τριτοπρόσ. συνίσταται cela consiste. 2. Σε τι συνίσταται το λάθος του; En quoi consiste sa faute? ◾ μτχ. συνισταμένη, η résultants f. 3. ΦΥΣ. Η συνισταμένη δύναμη. La résultante d'une force. 4. (μτφ.) Η νίκη υπήρξε η συνισταμένη των ενεργειών όλων των εμπλεκομένων παραγόντων. La victoire a été la résultante des efforts de tous ceux qui étaient concernés.
συνισταμένη, η μτχ.συνίσταμαι.
συνίσταται, ρ. τριτοπρόσ.συνίσταμαι.
συνιστώ και (λαϊκ - σπάν) συσταίνω ρ.μετβ. {σύστησα και (λόγ.) συνέστησα, συνιστώμαι, συστάθηκα και (λόγ.) συνεστή-θην, συστημένος και (λόγ.) συσταθείς, -είσα, -έν} fonder, constituer, recommander. 1. Συνιστώ μια εταιρεία. Fonder une société. Συνιστώ μια επιτροπή. Constituer une commission. 2. Αυτές οι πράξεις συνιστούν αδίκημα. Ces actes constituent un délit. 3. Του συνέστησα να μην υπογράψει το κείμενο. Je lui ai recommandé de ne pas signer le text. ◾ μτχ. συνιστώσα, η résultante f, composante f. 4. ΦΥΣ. Οι συνιστώσες δυνάμεις. Les résultantes des forces. 5. (μτφ.) Οι βασικές συνιστώσες μιας πολιτικής. Les composantes fondamentales d'une politique.

This verb is separated into two entries. The first shows no active voice, while the second mentions both active and passive forms. To resolve the conflict we make reference to the corresponding entries in [Babiniotis], pg. 1707: (unicode: éê☞✕✝◾→†ᾣ·☛«»ῶἵἐἡἑἰἉ)

συνίσταμαι ρ. αμετβ. {συνίστ-αμαι, -ασαι, -αται, -άμεθα, -ασθε, -ανται, μτχ. συνιστάμενος, -μενη, -μενο, παρατ. συνιστ-άμην, -ασο, -ατο, -άμεθα, -ασθε, , -αντο· εύχρ. σε ενσετ. κ. παρατ.} 1. (+από) αποτελούμαι: το υλικό συνίσταται από μία καινούργια χημική ένωση ΣΥΝ. συντίθεμαι 2. (τριτοπρόσ. συνίσταται, συνίστανται +σε) εντοπίζεται, βρίσκεται: σε τι ~ το αδίκημά του; (ποιο είναι το αδίκημά του;) || «η δουλειά των δημοσιογράφων που εργάζονται στα πρακτορεία συνίσταται στο να τροφοδοτούν τους συναδέλφους τους με πληροφορίες...» (εφημ.) 3. (η μτχ. συνιστάμενος, -μενη , -μενο) βλ.λ. ☛ ΣΧΟΛΙΟ λ. έγκειται, εξαρτώ.
[ΕΤΥΜ. αρχ., μέση φωνή τού ρ. συνίστημι (βλ. κ. συνιστώ). Το ρ. συνίσταμαι είχε αρχικώς τη σημ. «στέκομαι δίπλα (σε κάποιον στη μάχη)» και «σχετίζομαι, εμπλέκομαι (σε κάτι)», αλλά και η σημερινή έννοια «συναποτελούμαι» είναι ήδη αρχ. (λ.χ. ἡ πόλις συνίσταται ἐξ οἰκιῶν, Ξενοφ. Ἀπομνημον. 3. 6. 14)].

συνίσταται - συνιστάται. Οι λέξεις διαφέρουν στη σημασία τους: το συνίσταται σημαίνει (ανάλογα με την πρόθεση, με την οποία συντάσσεται): (α) «αποτελείται» (συνίσταται από) και (β) «έγκειται, βρίσκεται, υπάρχει» (συνίσταται σε): Το βιβλίο συνίσταται από τα εξής κεφάλια - Το βοήθεια τού Κράτους συνίσταται στο να εξασφαλίσει τις αναγκαίες πιστώσεις για το έργο. Αντίθετα, το συνιστάται σημαίνει «προτείνεται, δίδεται η συμβουλή, γίνεται η σύσταση»: Σε τέτοιες περιπτώσεις συνιστάται ανάπαυση τού ασθενούς - Λόγω τού καύσωνα συνιστάται να αποφεύγουν οι ηλικιωμένοι να μετακινούνται στους δρόμους.

συνιστώ ρ. μετβ. {συνιστάς... | σύστησα. (λόγ. συνέστησα), συνιστ-ώμαι , -άται..., συστάθηκα (κ. λόγ. συνεστήθην, -ης, -η..., μτχ. συσταθείς, -είσα, -έν), συστημένος} 1. οργανώνω, συγκροτώ (κυρ. ομάδα): ~ συμβούλιο / σώμα / εταιρεία || συνεστήθη επιτροπή για τη διερεύνηση τού θέματος ΣΥΝ. ιδρύω 2. αποτελώ, είμαι: οι τελευταίες του ενέργειες συνιστούν σοβαρότατο αδίκημα || οι παράγοντες που συνιστούν την κρίση || η αδιαφορία για τα κοινά συνιστά απειλή για τη δημοκρατία 3. δίνω συμβουλή, κάνω υπόδειξη: ο γιατρός τού συνέστησα να κόψει το κάπνισμα || θα σου συνιστούσα να διακόψεις κάθε επαφή μαζί τους || (κ. απρόσ.) στην περίπτωσή του συνιστάται ανάπαυση ΣΥΝ. υποδεικνύω, συμβουλεύω. Επίσης συσταίνω (σημ. 3). ☛ ΣΧΟΛΙΟ λ. συνίσταμαι.
[ΕΤΥΜ. < αρχ. συνιστῶ (-άω), παράλλ. τ. τού αρχαιοτ. συνίστημι < συν- + ἵστημι (βλ. λ. ἵσταμαι). Πβ. κ. ἐφ-ιστῶ, καθ-ιστῶ. Η αρχική σημ. τού ρ. ήταν «συνδυάζω, συνθέτω (υλικά, πόλιες ή πολιτεύματα», ενώ μτγν. είναι οι σημ. «προτείνω, υποδεικνύω» και «διορίζω σε επίσημο λειτούργημα» (λ.χ. ἐπίτροπος συσταθείς, επιγραφή)].

So I have created the entry like this:

συνίσταμαι, συνιστάμενος, 133, irr, vi.dep.def. (+από) consist of, be composed of, το μείγμα συνίσταται από τρία στοιχεία, the mixture consists of three elements
συνιστώ/συσταίνω, συνέστησα/σύστησα, συνιστώμαι, συστάθηκα/συνεστήθην, συστημένος, 158,61,133, irr, vt. constitute, establish, institute, set up, found, συνιστώ μια εταιρεία, to establish a company, introduce, advise, recommend

The conjugation uses two pages. The first page, συνίσταμαι, is a defective medio-passive deponent, because it lacks a perfective system. You can say "consists of", but you cannot say "consisted of", unless you use the erudite imperfect given only by [Babiniotis]. The second, συνιστώ/συνιστώμαι, is a full transitive whose perfective passive tenses come from -ίσταμαι but with passive present συνιστώμαι, which overrides (i.e. hides) συνίσταμαι. Thus you can say both, "I establish" and "I established". Both verbs are linked in alphabetical order on the least-significant [Model Prev Next] so they appear in traditional dictionary order. The second verb is related to συστήνω, to introduce, via hyperlink. [Iordanidou] makes the connection using a Note in the back of the book:

συστήνω, σύστησα* 1
συστήνομαι, συστήθηκα, συστημένος* 2

συστήνω, -ομαι: η βασική έννοια είναι → παρουσιάζω κάποιον σε άλλον για να γίνει αμοιβαία γνωριμία, και στην παθ. φωνή (συστήνομαι) → παρουσιάζομαι σε άγνωστό μου άτομο αναφέροντας το όνομά μου. Στον προφορικό λόγο μερικές φορές το συστήνω χρησιμοποιείται και με την έννοια → συμβουλεύω, υποδεικνύω, αντί του (σωστάτερου) συνιστώ. Η μτχ. συστημένος σημαίνει κυρίως → αυτός που παραπέμπεται με συστάσεις για τα προσόντα του ή (για γράμμα, δέμα κτλ.) με εξασφαλισμένη παράδοση στον παραλήπτη, έναντι καταβολής επιπλέον ποσού.
[Iordanidou] makes no mention of συσταίνω as being a popular alternative to συνιστώ/συστήνω, but you could make a reasonable inference from [Holton] that it is conjugated like ανασταίνω, 'I resurrect', class (xxi) (Iordanidou models {50, 51}) which is confirmed neither by [Pandelodimos] nor [Babiniotis]. αναστάνω as a frequent alternative to this class of verbs would be conjugated like αυξάνω, an irregular (Iordanidou models {104, 105}).

Table of Contents

I wanted to see, for each type, which verbs were missing voices, and why, so I have sorted the Iordanidou index by: Type {I, IIA, IIB}, Voice {Deponent, Active Only, Active and Passive, Defective}, Model Pair {{1,2}, {3,4}, {5,6} etc.}, Form {Regular, Irregular}. The list also serves as a pretty good table of contents, and a list of irregular verbs too. Clicking on the link will take you to the verb page. Then follow the Model list on the far right of the page to see all the verbs conjugated like the model.

Deponent Verbs

Deponent verbs have only passive voice forms. They often have middle meaning i.e. they refer to actions which are not only performed by the subject, but also affect the subject as well. Such thoughts are expressed in the other languages, like German and French, using reflexive pronouns. As a native English speaker, I had to get used to the idea of a "Middle" voice, which is used in Greek to express things like thinking and washing oneself, πλένομαι, Ich wasche mich.

Of course, deponent verbs can also be transitive, but since the forms are used "actively" you can't use them passively. So how do you do it? How do you transform an active sentence into a passive one when a deponent is involved?

By using an alternative construction, a periphrase. Here is an example:

Ο Πρόεδρος της Δημοκρατίας δέχτηκε τον Πρωθυπουργό.
The President of the Republic received the Prime Minister.

See what I mean? The forms of δέχομαι are used up for active voice sentences. To do the transformation you can do this:

Ο Πρωθυπουργός έγινε δεκτός από τον Πρόεδρο της Δημοκρατίας.
The Prime Minister was received by the President of the Republic.
The verbal syntagma is γίνομαι + δεκτός, in German, 'wurde empfangen'. δέκτος is called a "verbal adjective" but they do not exist for all verbs. It is like a past participle, a nominal form of the verb, and I have not treated them here.

Active-only Verbs

There are also many verbs with active-only forms. These are naturally intransitive - intransitives take no object - like coming and going, but they can also have "middle" meaning, like being hungry or thirsty. Being "middle" means the active-only verbs often have medio-passive participles, something quite strange for intransitive verbs, which normally can have no passive voice (*I am/was being gone/come/etc.). You can see a list of them by querying the dictionary for ppp (passive perfect participle). In fact, the presence of a medio-passive participle with an active-only verb usually marks it as middle active-only.

The medio-passive participles of such active middles have essentially the same meaning as the perifrased active perfective participles, e.g.

έχοντας διψάσει = είμαι διψασμένος
having become thirsty = I am thirsty.

έχοντας πεινάσει = είμαι πεινασμένος
having gotten hungry = I am hungry
They both have perfective i.e. completed meaning, but the periphrase with έχοντας places more emphasis on the action than on the state.

Of course, active-only verbs can be transitive, so it would be logical to use them passively, but alas, they have no passive forms! This means the passive voice must be formed perifrasitcally, or by using another verb with similar meaning which does have passive forms. For example, since γίνομαι means to be done, it can be used as the passive of κάνω, to do, which has no passive voice forms [nor does έχω, to have, but think of all the verbs meaning to have or to hold, like κρατιέμαι, to be held].

Active-Passive Verbs

Active-Passive verbs would normally all be transitive, except for the Middle voice, which effectively hides the direct object, so the Passive voice can get lost, or become context-sensitive: the verb can be used both reflexively and passively. For example, Αγαπιέμαι. can mean either, "I love myself" or "I am loved (by me i.e. Αγαπώ τον εαυτο μου)". Αγαπιέμαι απο την μητέρα μου is clearly a passive construction. It means "I am loved by my mother". I guess this means: if the passive agent is not present, the passive form could be middle or passive. Not much of a rule.

This is a verb dictionary of fully conjugated forms, so I have taken the tables from Iordanidou, which split the verb into active and medio-passive forms, and reassembled them, removing all doubt regarding such fine points as accenting the compound verbs on the preposition, lengthening augments, euridte forms etc.. This involved merging her notes too, and consulting the other sources, especially for the erudite forms, which she only includes in the third person.

Many verbs can be conjugated according to more than one active or passive model. Such verbs require more than one page for the complete conjugation. Examples would be [...] Additional pages have been hyperlinked together. I've also hyperlinked verbs which are related in meaning or which derive from other verbs, but have undergone a change in form, and therefore do not belong to the same Model list.

Defective Verbs

Defective verbs lack an aorist tense system, so they do not have a perfective past (but they usually have an Imperfect, which is constructed from the imperfective i.e. non-aorist stem). Any kind of verb -- deponent, active-only and active-passive -- can be defective. I have marked the defectives with def.. Sometimes an active-passive verb will only be defective in one of the voices, and not the other, so I have marked the full active-passive defectives def.def. You have to look at the semi-defective verb to see which voice is defective.

The Tenses

Traditional Tenses

The verb dictionary contains all the traditional tenses and retains the traditional tense names. I have chosen a traditional structure, one which groups the tenses logically, and not physically, according to: Voice {Active, Passive}, Mood {Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, Participles}, and Time {Past, Present, Future}:

There is another traditional structure, one which groups the tenses according to the physical structure of the forms: Voice {Active, Medio-Passive}, Aspect {Non-aorist, Aorist, Perfect}, Time {Present, Past, Future}, and Mood {Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, Participle}. This is the structure used by [Christides] and [Capri]:

The primary advantage of this system is that the forms of Greek verbs are easily derived from the verb stem, which is either non-aorist or aorist, so it's easy to see how the tenses are constructed. However, the classification is more complex, and a bit less intuitive. It's harder to understand.

The Modern i.e. Functional Classification of the Tenses

Finally, the new way of doing things: functional grammars divide the tenses up into the even more abstract categories of modality {modal, non-modal}, aspect {perfective, non-perfective} and time {past, non-past}:

  1. Present: non-modal [assertion], non-past [present], imperfective

  2. Imperfect: non-modal [assertion], past, imperfective

  3. Aorist: non-modal [assertion], past, perfective

  4. Present Perfect: non-modal [assertion], non-past, "perfect"

  5. Past Perfect: non-modal [assertion], past, "perfect"

  6. Future Continuous: modal [assertion/intention/conjecture], non-past [future], imperfective

  7. Present Subjunctive: modal [commanding/requesting/uncertainty], non-past [present], imperfective

  8. ας + Present: modal [granting, wishing], non-past [present], imperfective

  9. Simple Future: modal [assertion/intention], non-past [future], perfective

  10. Aorist Subjunctive: modal [command/invitation/permission/concession/wish], non-past [present/future], perfective

  11. ας + Indefinite: modal [concession/command/invitation/instigation/wish], non-past [present/future], perfective

  12. Future Perfect: modal [assertion/intention/probability], non-past [future], "perfect"

  13. Subjunctive Perfect: modal [command/invitation/uncertainty/wish], non-past, "perfect"

  14. ας + Present Perfect: modal [concession/wish/instigation], non-past, "perfect"

  15. θα + Imperfect: modal [conjecture, possibility], past, imperfective

  16. να + Imperfect: modal [wish/uncertainty], past, imperfective

  17. ας + Imperfect: modal [wish/condition], past, imperfective

  18. θα + Aorist: modal [conjecture], past, perfective

  19. να + Aorist: modal [uncertainty], past, perfective

  20. ας + Aorist: modal [concession], past, perfective

  21. θα + Past Perfect: modal [conjecture, possibility], past, "perfect"

  22. να + Past Perfect: modal [uncertainty/wish/condition], past, "perfect"

  23. ας + Past Perfect: modal [concession/wish/condition], past, "perfect"

  24. Present Imperative: modal [command/invitation/instigation/permission], non-past, imperfective

  25. Aorist Imperative: modal [command/invitation/instigation/permission], non-past [present/future], perfective

Greek has three little modal particles {θα, να, ας} which can be combined with the traditional tenses to change the mood of the sentence in amazingly complex ways. In essence, these particles create new tenses from the old. The easiest way to add modality to your sentence is to use one of the modal auxiliaries: μπορώ [possibility], θέλω [wish], or πρέπει [obligation, probability].

Alternative Perfect Constructions

Most European languages have compound tenses formed using an auxiliary, like to have, or to be, and the passive perfect participle. Greek has this too, but the more common way does not involve the participle, but an "infinitive" form based on the dependent. From [Holton] Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar, pg. 233:

Alternative Perfect Constructions

Another, much less common, way of forming perfect tenses is with the use of the auxiliary έχω followed by the passive perfect participle.

This construction with έχω and the passive participle focuses even more on the result of the action of the verb to the extent that it is now presented as a property of the object itself. Thus we may say that we have a progression from the action to the result as shown by the use of the participle. However, we are still operating in an active construction due to the auxiliary έχω, which allows the agent of the actions to remain the subject of the construction. Compare:

  1. Έγραψα το γράμμα
    I wrote the letter
  2. Έχω γράψει το γράμμα
    I have written the letter
  3. Έχω γραμμένο το γράμμα
    I have written the letter
  4. Το γράμμα είναι γραμμένο
    The letter is written

We can interpret the progression from a. to d. as follows: a. I performed the action of writing the letter, b. I wrote the letter and this past action carries on being relevant now, c. I performed the action of writing and as a result the letter is now written, and d. the letter is written and it does not matter who did the writing.

The perfect formed with έχω and the passive participle may occur more frequently in some dialects such as those of rural Crete. It is rare in Standard Greek but is found in idioms:

Needless to say, this construction can also occur in the pluperfect (το είχα γραμμένο 'I had written it'), future perfect (θα το έχω γραμμένο 'I will have written it'), and perfect conditional (θα το είχα γραμμένο 'I would have written it').

The topic is also treated in [Adams] Essential Modern Greek Grammar, pg. 71:

Active Compound Tenses

The active perfect (or present perfect) in Modern Greek is formed by combining the present tense of έχω ("have"; see p. 55 for its conjugation) with either an invariant aorist (identical with the third person singular aorist subjunctive but with the ending spelled -ει) or the aorist participle that ends in -μένος: έχω πιάσει (I have caught), έχει πιασμένο (he has caught), etc.

The aorist participle in -μένος always agrees in gender and number with the direct object:

Έχω γραμμένο το γράμμα (I have written the letter)
Έχω ιδωμένη την Αθήνα (I have seen Athens)


Έχω γράψει το γράμμα (invariant)
Έχω δει την Αθήνα (invariant)

The active future perfect is formed with θα plus the present perfect: θα έχω πιάσει or θα έχω πιασμένο (I will have caught).

The active pluperfect (or past perfect) is formed by combining the imperfect of έχω with either the invariant aorist (third person singular subjunctive) or with the aorist participle: είχα πιάσει (I had caught), είχε πιάσει (he had caught) ; είχα πιασμένο (I had caught), είχε πιασμένο (he had caught), etc.

You will have noticed that the alternate perfect construction only applies to transitive verbs, and that the passive participle is always in the accusative and agrees with the verb's object. A concoted example would be:

Έχω αγαπημένες τις γυναίκες με γυαλιά
Τις έχω αγαπημένες

For those of you familiar with the Romance languages:

J'ai aimé les femmes avec lunettes.
Je les ai aimées.

The passive participle in French, Italian and Spanish only agrees with the object pronoun if it preceeds the verb. Greek is more uniform. It must always agree. (German and English don't care. That's the best.) This sentence fails on pragmatic grounds. Better would be Μου αρέσουν οι γυναίκες με γυαλιά.

Regular Verbs

Regular verbs follow the classifications Type and Model.

The [Type] tab classifies the verbs according to their personal endings. There are essentially two types, I and II; then, there are two II types, A and B. Type I verbs are accented on the stem. Type II verbs are accented on the personal ending. It's as simple as that. There are some complications with Type II verbs though: some verbs don't seem to belong to A or B, while others belong to both A and B. Verbs having more than one conjugation are hyperlinked on the first person present of the active-indicative, the "name" of the verb.

The [Model] tab classifies the verbs according to the stems. Stem formation is quite regular too. There are probably 25, or 30 of them. Each verb usually has three stems, one imperfect stem, shared in active and passive voice, like {βλάφτω, βλάφτομαι}, and two perfect stems, one active, like έβλαψα, and one passive, like βλάφτηκα.

The full conjugations are created by combining the Active and Passive models from the Iordanidou book, so our "Model" is an ordered pair, eg. ξύνω has two models, {1, 2}, and {1, 39}. Verbs belonging to more than one model have more than one conjugation, and are connected by hyperlinks. For example, σέρνω, and σύρω both represent the same verb: "draw, pull, drag".

Sub [Model]... Μodels can divided into submodels, like when a group of verbs share the optional parts of a model. Check out γράφω. They're all pretty close. Some conjugations do not have a participle, some have an optional infinitive, others have additional periphrased tenses...

Irregular Verbs

What makes a Greek verb irregular?

Nearly every Greek verb is irregular. Modern Greek has 235 model conjugations. The more regular they are, the more verbs belong to the model. Irregular verbs are special. Irregular verbs belong to singleton models (the ones numbered above 79), i.e. one verb per category, except for the compound verbs, which are derived from the same root, like γράφω.

All verbs belong to a [Type] -- even the irregulars -- so we have Type I irregulars, like λέω and Type II irregulars, like συνιστώ. There are some type II verbs which share I and II forms... Now these really are wierd.

The most irregular verbs?

These are usually the most frequently used. Είμαι is part of almost every conjugation; even the personal endings of the passive voice look like είμαι. Same thing with Έχω : it is part of almost every conjugation. Here is a list of the most common irregular verbs:

[This list has been superseded by the lists or irregular verbs]


A defective is "broken", for some reason, or other. Strictly speaking, "defective" means lacking a perfect system (no aorist), like ανήκω, belong. It could also mean lacking a tense, a voice (like a vt. with no passive), etc. The smallest entry in the dictionary is πρέπει. Most impersonals are merely listed in the index.


An impersonal is only formed in the third person, like "It's raining" βρέχει, which also happens to have a full conjugation, and can be used personally, like "I get the dog wet" or "The dog got wet in the rain".


I am only interested in transitivity to determine if a verb could (logically) have a passive form. There is a class of verbs in modern Greek, like θέλω, πιστεύω, etc. which are transitive, but have no passive forms. So, how do you create a passive expression? Using periphrase. [Some verbs are both vt. and vi.; they take an optional object, but they do take an object, so I mark them as vt. (Sorry, if I offend any purists out there.)]


Intransitives are verbs of being, motion... Many Greek verbs are intransitive, but have passive participles, like ευτυχισμένος... The participle seems to retain an active meaning, "happy".

Most Greek/English dictionaries list reflexives as intransitives, because they do not take an explicit object. Greek reflexives often have passive form, an artifact from Ancient Greek, like in Latin.


1) Reflexives which refer to self. 2) Reflexives which refer to things going on in the mind of the speaker

1) Most Greek/English dictionaries list reflective verbs as intransitives, vi., because, in English, they have no object. [Well, they do: the object is the speaker himself.] Ancient Greek had a Middle voice whose forms closely resembled the Passive, so Greek doesn't use reflexive pronouns for such common expressions as: "Ich wasche mich" λούζομαι, or "Ich wasche mir die Haende." "Ich setze mich" is κάθομαι. "Je me couche" is κοιμάμαι.

2) Greek also uses the passive forms to describe things going on in the mind of the speaker, like thinking, feeling,..

Ich fuerchte mich is φοβάμαι. [Note to self: "foobar" is GI talk for "furchtbar", or "fucked up beyond repair". It looks like it has a Greek origin, "foo".]

Ich erinnere mich, I remember, is θυμάμαι.

Ich freue mich is είμαι ευτυχισμένος, I am happy, χαίρομαι πολύ, I'm glad to meet you, χάρηκα, the pleasure is mine...

Ευτυχώ is a wee, tiny bit irregular. First, as an intransitive, it should have no passive participle, but it does, but with active, predicative meaning, like an adjective, expressing a state of mind, and not as a verb, expressing a reflexive, or heaven forbid, a passive action. Second, that participle is a wee, tiny bit irregular. If it were like the model θεωρώ, it would normally be ευτυχημένος, but it's not. See what I mean?

[Note to self: ευτυχισμένος is a medio-passive participle, stupid, a middle participle (not a passive participle) so the form and the meaning are "medial" or reflexive. No contradiction here. ...and it is perfective reflecting the action as a state (of mind)]


All verbs have an active meaning. The deponents have active meaning, but passive form. Are there any verbs which have passive meaning only? The form doesn't matter. Even an intransitive deponent, active reflexively, has active meaning. The subject and object are the same person.


Romance languages form the passive perphrastically [German and English too]. Greek has retained the classical Middle forms, conjugated with είμαι fused to the stem, not as a periphrase.


There was an important (but obscure) class of latin verbs called semideponents, which had active form, but passive meaning, audeo, ausus sum, I dare. [Actually they were mixed mode, having both active and passive form]. I suppose these verbs should be conjugated under the heading Passive. [That would only be half right :] What were they again? audeo, ausus sum, I dare, I dared.

For example, ανεβαίνω, ανέβηκα, I ascend, ascended and συγχαίρω, συγχάρηκα, I congratulate, congratulated are semideponent, because they have active forms in the imperfective tenses, and passive forms in the perfective tenses. Both are transitive and defective (of course), because they lack a way to build the passive voice. [Danger: use the formal definition of defective - lacking an aorist system. Lacking a Voice is not a defect. It happens alot.]


These verbs lack components, like a perfect system. Έχω (one) is defective, Είμαι (too). Το ξέρω (: three :).


like "It's raining; it's pouring... the old man is snoring." It's snowing, thundering, lightning... Πρέπει is impersonal, and doesn't have a page of it's own, just an entry in the index.


Greek also lacks an infinitive. The Greeks prefer finite (i.e. conjugated) subordinate clauses, like ... The "infinitive" is just the third person of something they call the "dependent" tense, έχω λύσει, ...

"The names have been changed, to protect the innocent."

Words like infinitive, indefinite, non-finite, undefined, aorist, unbounded ... all mean the same thing, only the context changes. Aorist means "undefined", and is used to describe the "simple" past, i.e. one-shot past, or, for that matter, the "simple" future, something that happens only once, but in the future. [Don't get me started on "perfect", meaning "complete", "done", "finished" etc. "I'm a perfectionist, but not perfect."]

Aorist means "undefined with respect to another action". It means "non-perfect". Perfect tenses always make reference to other actions, mentioned either adverbially, or in a subordinate clause. "Imperfect" acts are uncompleted, "Perfect" completed. Aorist means "does not apply to the perfective system, has no Aspect". Aorist merely defines an action, usually in the past.

Greek for Indicative mood is "ΟΡΙΣΤΙΚΗ" meaning definite. Actually, the indicative mood is not a mood at all, it lies outside the system of Modality {Subjunctive, Imperative, Optative(=Wish), Potential(=Possibility, the "if" clause in a contrary-reality condition), ...}: it is used in unadulterated stament of fact, implies no subjectivity. Indicative means "non-modal".

Infinitive means "non-finite, unfinished, lacking personal endings". Infinitives and participles also happen to lack mood, meaning they are "indicative", but that is not the reason they are infinitives. You could imagine a language with imperative infinitives, like Italian, or conditional infinitives. (I had a neighbor who came from Albania who used to tell his dog, "You, no barking!") Infinitives are non-finite because they are unconjugated. Infinitives act as nouns. They name the action, as a noun, so they are "singular" and could be declined for case, but are usually not. Participles are adjectives. They usually agree with the noun they determine in case and number, but not in English. Participles have personal endings which come from the Noun domain. They are declined, not conjugated. Nouns are matter, verbs energy, so you convert nouns into verbs according to the equation e=mc2.

Gerunds as adverbs. They qualify the verb and have no endings at all, like an adverb.

The Dependent Tenses

The dependent tense is not a tense at all. The dependent tenses "depend" on the particles να (the aorist subjunctive) and θα (the simple, or perfective, future). They are the built using the aorist stem, which has no Aspect. They have the same personal endings as the present tense. They are sometimes called the "indefinite" tenses, especially in older books, but I think this is easy to confuse with the "infinitive". Examples: {θα λύσω, να λύσω}, {θα λύσεις, να λύσεις}, {θα λύσει, να λύσει} etc. Sometimes an irregularity occurs, where the dependent is not exactly like the perfective stem, e.g. μπαιν -> μπηκ -> μπω, παιρν -> πηρ -> παρ, ερχ -> ηρθ|ηλθ -> ερθ|ελθ.


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[Pandelodimos] Παντελοδημος Δημητρης - Καϊτερης Κωνσταντινος 2002: Ελληνογαλλικο Λεξικο - Dictionnaire Grec-Francais (Athens: Kauffmann), 1,507 pgs. ISBN 960-7256-85-9.

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